Scientific Name : Trachypithecus obscurus
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Near threatened.
The dusky leaf monkeys spend their time moving on high trees and spend their time relaxing and searching for food with together in a troop of 5-20 individuals The newborn duskys clutch on to their mother with their orange or yellow fur and cute pink face for about 6 months until it matures to dark grey. Dusky leaf monkeys are primarily folivorous (a herbivore specialized in eating leaves) and thrive on consumption of flowers, shoots, seedlings, leaves and fruits. As dusky leaf monkeys are arboreal, they prefer dwelling on tall trees in dense forests. They inhabit the islands of Penang, Langkawi and Perhentian Besar. Trachypithecus o. obscurus is mainly found in peninsular Malaysia while other subspecies are found scattered in Thailand and Burma.

Fun Facts:
An alternative name for the dusky leaf monkey is the spectacled langur, wherein the word langur is derived from a Hindu word which means long-tailed. The “spectacled” name of the monkey is adapted from the rings around the eyes which resemble spectacles or glasses.


Scientific Name : Dicrurus paradiseus
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Near threatened.
Always seeking to attract attention in the forest with its loud calls that include perfect imitations of many other birds is the racket-tailed drongo. These birds are mainly found in forest habitats and feeds on mainly insects but also feed on fruits, and flowering trees for nectar. Having short legs, they sit upright and are often perched on high and exposed branches. They have an ability to accurately mimic alarm calls of other birds that are learnt through interactions in mixed-species flocks. They have been said to imitate raptor calls so as to alarm other birds and steal prey from them in the ensuing panic.

Fun Facts:
Whenever you spot a troop of dusky leaf langurs up on the trees while you are in The Habitat, look around the trees nearby. Chances are you will be able to spot a racket-tailed drongo perched nearby, waiting for the langurs to leap from branch to branch.


Scientific Name : Ratufa Bicolor
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Near threatened.
The beautiful Black Giant Squirrel is one of the largest squirrels in the world. It inhabits tall primary forest and generally remains high in the canopy, but at times may be found at lower levels when feeding. It is largely solitary in habits and extremely shy, rarely coming to ground. It can confidently make huge leaps from branch to branch in the high canopy. Fruits, seeds and young leaves make up its diet, supplemented by occasional insects and sometimes birds eggs. It builds a large, spherical nest of leaves and twigs.

Fun Facts:
Unlike many squirrels, black giant squirrels do not have a tail that curls over its back. Instead, their tail lays limp behind them. Also, the black fur on their back and the orange colour of their belly helps them blend in with the changing light pattern.


Scientific Name : Galeopterus variegatus
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Least concerned.
Malayan Colugos are little-known, forest-dwelling animals that have huge gliding membranes that enable them to make spectacular leaps from tree to tree in the Asian rainforests. It Sunda is strictly arboreal and nocturnal. It is comparable to a medium-sized possum or a very large squirrel. Although they are mammals, colugos are marsupial-like in their breeding habits. The young are born after 60 days of pregnancy in a tiny and undeveloped form. Babies spend their first six months or so clinging to the mother's belly. To protect them and transport them she curls her tail up to fold the gliding membrane into a warm, secure quasi-pouch. The young colugos do not reach full size until they are two or three years old. Their diet is based on leaves, shoots, flowers and fruit.

Fun Facts:
Although it is also known as the Malayan Flying Lemur or Sunda Flying Lemur, it is a species of colugo, not a lemur. It also does not fly but glides from tree to tree after attaining height by climbing up trees. When threatened, it either climbs higher or remains motionless. It is a skilful climber but quite helpless on the forest floor.


Scientific Name : Geosesarma faustum
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Not Evaluated.
Geosesarma faustum is described and distinguished from the two known species by the various carapace, male pleon and gonopod characters. The taxonomy of the three species is discussed. All three are highland species, occurring only at altitudes higher than 700 m; and are characterized by their quadrate carapace, long and slender ambulatory legs, an absence of a flagellum on the exopod of their third maxilliped, and relatively slender male first gonopod.

Fun Facts:
Once in a while when you come across our first pavilion our nature guides will stop and point out a crab, many wonder what is a crab doing on the hill but a little friendly crab exists in the bromeliads.

Blue Malayan Coral Snake

Scientific Name : Calliophis bivirgata
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Least Concern.
The Blue Malayan Coral Snake is a beautiful, but highly venomous, front-fanged elapid. It inhabits primary and secondary forest, in lowland and lower montane areas. It dwells amongst the leaf-litter on the forest floor, but seems to emerge early to mid-morning especially when night-time rain has made the leaf litter wet. Typically this snake is encountered crossing forest trails. It is instantly recognisable by its red head, tail and belly. The dorsal surface is dark blue to black, and most populations have a broad blue stripe on each flank.

Fun Facts:
Blue Malayan Coral Snake are known as the “killer of killers” because it attacks and eats some of the deadliest snakes. Its primary food source is other snakes.

Huntsman Spider

Scientific Name : heteropoda venatoria
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Not Evaluated.
Huntsman Spiders are large, long-legged spiders, measuring up to 15 centimeters across the legs. Huntsman Spiders are mostly grey to brown, sometimes with banded legs. Huntsman Spiders have eight eyes. Many Huntsman Spiders, especially Flat Huntsman Spiders and including Common Huntsman spiders and Banded Huntsman Spiders, have rather flattened bodies adapted for living in narrow spaces under loose bark or rock crevices. This is aided by their legs which, instead of bending vertically in relation to the body, have the joints twisted so that they spread out forwards and laterally in crab-like fashion. Both Brown Huntsman Spiders (Heteropoda) and Badge Huntsman Spiders (Neosparassus) have less flattened bodies.

Fun Facts:
Males of Heteropoda venatoria, one of the Huntsman spiders, have recently been found to deliberately make a sound when they are given reason to believe that females of their species are nearby.

Many-lined Sun Skink

Scientific Name : Eutropis multifasciata
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Least Concern.
Skinks are characterised by their smooth, scaled skins, and small legs. Mainly terrestrial and diurnal, they are to be found basking in the sun along forest tracks or on tree trunks. The Many-lined can be identified by the five or seven dark lines on its ventral surface parallel to its body line. Older, larger specimens are commonly found lacking the thick tail. It inhabits primary and secondary forests, and is often found on the forest floor where the sun breaks through the canopy. However it can also be found close to villages, along river banks and in areas of rock outcrop. The colour of the flanks can vary from olive-brown to reddish-orange. Throat colour can vary from white to yellow. It feeds mainly on insects and gives birth to live young.

Fun Facts:
Skinks can lose their tail when attacked by predators. Like many reptiles and sme amphibian’s skinks can actively severe their tails from their bod in a fight or flight response.

Jumping Spider

Scientific Name : Phidippus audax
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Not Evaluated.
The jumping spider family (Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species (Peng et al., 2002). Jumping spiders have good vision and use it for hunting and navigating. They are capable of jumping from place to place, secured by a silk tether. Both their book lungs and the tracheal system are well-developed, as they depend on both systems (bimodal breathing). Jumping spiders live in a variety of habitats. Tropical forests harbor the most species, but they are also found in temperate forests, scrub lands, deserts, intertidal zones, and even mountains.

Fun Facts:
Jumping spiders have eyes like Galilean telescopes. The eyes of jumping spiders of a decidedly odd arrangement. Two smaller eyes bracket two large eyes that rest in the center of their rectangular heads.

Asian Emerald Dove

Scientific Name : Chalcophaps indica
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Least Concern.
This is a common species in rainforest and similar dense wet woodlands, farms, gardens, mangroves and coastal heaths. It builds a scant stick nest in a tree up to five metres and lays two cream-coloured eggs. It often flies low between the patches of dense forest it prefers, but when disturbed will frequently walk away rather than fly. The back and wings are bright emerald green. The flight feathers and tail are blackish, and broad black and white bars show on the lower back in flight. The head and underparts are dark vinous pink The male has a white patch on the edge of the shoulders and a grey crown, which the female lacks. Females will tend to have a browner complexion with a grey mark on the shoulder.

Fun Facts:
Emerald doves usually occur singly, pairs or in small groups. They are quite terrestrial, often searching for fallen fruit on the ground and spending little time in trees except when roosting.


Scientific Name : Phidippus audax
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Not Evaluated.
Trilobite beetles are strange but little-known insects that have been found in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia and India. A trilobite beetle looks very different from other beetles. The body is flattened and is divided into segments that look like plates of armour. The plates are decorated with knobs and projections and are known as scutes. The head is tiny in relation to the size of the plates and is retractable. The beetle’s appearance reminded early observers of extinct marine animals called trilobites. Some of the females that have been discovered are colorful and beautiful insects. Male trilobite beetles are much smaller than the females and have a typical beetle appearance. The fact that the genders are so different in both appearance and size makes it hard for researchers to recognize that they belong to the same species unless they see mating taking place

Fun Facts:
Trilobite Beetle have tiny retractable head which it can tug under the prothorax for protection from predator.

Alstonia penangiana

Scientific Name : Alstonia penangiana
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Critically Endangered .
Alstonia penangiana is found in primary or disturbed lowland dipterocarp forest at 200 – 550 m altitude. The tree can reach up to 32 m in height and 35 cm in diameter. Its bark is of smooth texture with a grey or pale brown colour. Unlike other Alstonia species, A. penangiana’s bark does not produce white latex. Recent phytochemical study of A. penangiana revealed the presence of bisindole alkaloids with pronounced in-vitro growth inhibitory activity against an array of human cancer cell lines.

Fun Facts:
It is a very rare Alstonia, only recorded twice in Penang, the first record was in Penang Botanic Gardens and the second time in Moniots Road on Penang Hill. It is closely related to the commoner Alstonia angustifolia.

Long-tailed Macaque

Scientific Name : Macaca fascicularis
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Least Concern.
These primates are diurnal and highly social creatures, forming groups of 1 or more males as well as 3 - 20 females with their young. As a general rule, the majority of mature individuals of a group are females. Males usually disperse upon reaching maturity to form new groups or join bachelor herds. Males live in a well-defined linear hierarchy system, where individuals are ranked depending on age, size, and fighting skills. Young females, on the other hand, remain with their natal group, forming the core of the group. Related females typically live in close relationships.

Fun Facts:
These primates are known to use tools in the daily life. In order to break shell of crabs, they use rocks. Meanwhile, nuts, oysters and teeth help them peel skin of sweet potato

Geostachys penangensis

Scientific Name : Geostachys penangensis
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Endangered.
The original specimen of Geostachys penangensis was first collected in 1885 on Government Hill by Charles Curtis, the Superintendent Penang Botanic Gardens, and described in 1899 by H.N. Ridley, the Director of Singapore Botanic Gardens.
This ginger grows on forest litter and on cracks and crevices with very little soil on shady hill slopes and ridges. It is restricted mainly in the summit areas of Penang Hill and not found in lower slopes. Due to its hyper-endemism, the major threat to this species is habitat disruption and deforestation. Populations of G. penangensis on the various hill summits of Penang is vulnerable to trampling by hikers on areas with high foot traffic as they may be growing on or along popular jungle trails.

Licuala acutifida

Scientific Name : Licuala acutifida
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Vulnerable.
Licuala acutifida is a small to medium sized palm that prefers growth in lowland to upper hill dipterocarp forests, mainly upon Penang Hill. In the colonial era, some of the Indian convicts upon ticket of leave, gained their livelihood by making walking sticks with a bulbous head from this palm, nick-named “Penang Lawyers”. Penang lawyers was constructed by scrapping off the exterior coating with glass, and then the stick was straightened with fire. These walking sticks were sold on the spot, and many were exported to Europe and America.

Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr.

Scientific Name : Hanguana malayana.
Global Conservation Status (IUCN): Critically Endangered.
Specimens of Hanguana malayana were discovered from a few localities on Penang Island: Government Hill, 1885; Batu Ferringhi, 1900; Government Hill Road, 1919.
Recent field surveys and taxonomic revision by Leong & Niissalo (2017) indicates that H. malayana is endemic to Penang Island, with EOO (extent of occurrence) not exceeding 45 km2. There is no recent evidence of this species still being present in Batu Ferringhi due to change of land use pattern in the area. Only 25 mature individuals were seen to occur mainly in forested areas around Penang Hill and Air Itam Dam, rendering the species to be treated as Critically Endangered.